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Books (7)                                      

Peer-reviewed articles (61)  

Chapters (20)  

Nai, A., Grömping, M., & Wirz, D. (Ed.) (forthcoming 2025). Elgar Encyclopedia of Political Communication. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.


Nai, A., & Otto, L. (forthcoming 2025). The Psychology of Negative Electoral Campaigns. Perceptions, Evaluations, and Effects. London: Routledge.

Nai, A., & Maier, J. (2024). Dark Politics. The Personality of Politicians and the Future of Democracy. New York: Oxford University Press

Norris, P., & Nai, A. (Eds.) (2017). Election Watchdogs: Transparency, Accountability, and Integrity, New York: Oxford University Press.


Nai, A. (Ed.) (2016). Le citoyen face à ses opinions: arguments, connaissances et campagnes politiques en Suisse, Zurich: Seismo.


Nai, A., & Walter, A. S. (Eds.) (2015). New perspectives on negative campaigning: why attack politics matters, Colchester: ECPR Press.


Nai, A. (2014). Choisir avec l'esprit, voter avec le Coeur. Causes et conséquences des processus cognitifs de formation de l'opinion en Suisse lors des votations fédérales, Zurich: Seismo.




Nai, A., & Maier, J. (2024). Polarized populists. Dark campaigns, affective polarization, and the moderating role of populist attitudes. American Behavioral Scientist. doi: 10.1177/000276422412420


Vargiu, C., Nai, A., & Valli, C. (2024). Uncivil Yet Persuasive? Testing the Persuasiveness of Political Incivility and the Moderating Role of Populist Attitudes and Personality Traits. Political Psychology. doi: 10.1111/pops.12969


Vargiu, C., Nai, A., & Garzia, D. (2024). Incivility Does Not Exist: An Experimental Assessment on the Drivers of Incivility Perceptions and their Effects on Candidate Evaluations. The Journal of Politics (in-principle acceptance of stage-1 registered report).


Mendoza, P., Nai, A., & Bos, L. (2024). Going negative amidst (better) alternatives: A comparative analysis of the negative campaigning backlash effect. Political Communication. doi: 10.1080/10584609.2024.2314604

Martin, D., & Nai, A. (2024). Deepening the Rift: Negative Campaigning Fosters Affective Polarization in Multiparty Elections. Electoral Studies. doi: 10.1016/j.electstud.2024.102745


Casiraghi, M., Curini, L., Maggini, N., & Nai, A. (2023). Who looks up to the Leviathan? Ideology, political trust, and support for restrictive state interventions in times of crisis. European Political Science Review. doi: 10.1017/S1755773923000401


Nai, A., Aaldering, L., Ferreira da Silva, F., Garzia, D., & Gattermann, K. (2023). The Dark Side of the Mood. Candidate Evaluation, Voter Perceptions, and the Driving Role of (Dark) Personality Traits. Electoral Studies, 86, 102715.

Nai, A., & Maier, J. (2023). Mediatized campaign attacks fuel affective polarization if perceived as negative. Experimental evidence with American voters. International Journal of Communication. 17, 5246–5267.

Zugravu, A., Medeiros, M., & Nai, A. (2023). A Tormenting Dilemma: American Identity and Attitudes towards Torture. American Politics Research. doi: 10.1177/1532673X231173917


Valli, C., & Nai, A. (2023). Dispositioned to resist? The Big Five and resistance to dissonant political views. Personality and Individual Differences. 207, 112152.


Casiraghi, M., Curini, L., & Nai, A. (2023). Populism in the Eye of the Beholder? A Conjoint Experiment on Citizens’ Identification of Populists. European Journal of Political Research. doi: 10.1111/1475-6765.12589  


Nai, A., Schemeil, Y., & Valli, C. (2023). A Persuadable Type? Personality Traits, Dissonant Information, and Political Persuasion. International Journal of Communication17, 1061-1082.


Tatum, A., & Nai, A. (2022). Entitled and self-conscious? The ego-centric underpinnings of electoral preferences during the 2020 U.S. election. Research & Politics. doi: 10.1177/20531680221145554


Nai, A., Young, E., & Bos, L. (2022). Pop Populism: Ethno-Traditionalism Beyond National Borders and the Populist Radical Right. Acta Politica. doi: 10.1057/s41269-022-00262-7

Medeiros, M., Nai, A., Erman, A, & Young, E. (2022). Personality traits of world leaders and differential policy responses to the COVID-19 pandemic. Social Science & Medicine. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2022.115358


Vargiù, C., & Nai, A. (2022). Sincerity over Accuracy: Epistemic Preferences and the Persuasiveness of Uncivil and Simple Rhetoric. International Journal of Communication. 16, 4457–4480.

Valli, C., & Nai, A. (2022). Let Me Think About It: Cognitive Elaboration and Strategies of Resistance to Political Persuasion. Media Psychology. doi: 10.1080/15213269.2022.2098774

Nai, A., Tresch, A., & Maier, J. (2022). Tailored negativity. Campaign consultants, candidates’ personality, and attack politics in the 2019 Swiss election. Swiss Political Science Review. doi: 10.1111/spsr.12525

Nai. A. (2022). Populist voters like dark politicians. Personality and Individual Differences. 187, 111412.


Nai, A., Tresch, A., & Maier, J. (2022). Hardwired to attack. Candidates’ personality traits and negative campaigning in three European countries. Acta Politica. doi: 10.1057/s41269-021-00222-7

Petkevic, V., & Nai, A. (2021). Political Attacks in 280 Characters or Less. A New Tool for the Automated Classification of Campaign Negativity on Social Media. American Politics Research. doi: 10.1177/1532673X211055676


Gravelle, T. B., Medeiros, M., Nai, A. (2021). In the Shadow of the Tower: Spatial proximity to mosques, visible diversity, and support for the radical right. Political Geography. doi: 10.1016/j.polgeo.2021.102499

Verhulsdonk, I., Nai, A., & Karp, J. (2021). Are Political Attacks a Laughing Matter? Three Experiments on Political Humor and the Effectiveness of Negative Campaigning. Political Research Quarterly. doi: 10.1177/10659129211023590


Nai, A., & Maier, J. (2021). The Wrath of Candidates. Drivers of Fear and Enthusiasm Appeals in Election Campaigns Across the Globe. Journal of Political Marketing. doi: doi: 10.1080/15377857.2021.1930327


Maier, J., & Nai, A. (2021). When conflict fuels negativity. A large-scale comparative investigation of the contextual drivers of negative campaigning in elections worldwide. The Leadership Quarterly. doi: 10.1016/j.leaqua.2021.101564


Nai, A., Medeiros, M., Maier, M., Maier, J., (2021). Euroscepticism and the use of negative, uncivil and emotional campaigns in the 2019 European Parliament Election: A Winning Combination. European Union Politics. doi: 10.1177/14651165211035675


Maier, M., Jalali, C., Maier, J., Nai, A., & Stier, S. (2021). When do parties put Europe in the center? Evidence from the 2019 European Parliamentary election campaign. Politics. doi: 10.1177/02633957211008348

Maier, J., & Nai, A. (2021). Mapping the drivers of negative campaigning. Insights from a candidate survey. International Political Science Review. doi: 10.1177/0192512121994512


Nai, A., Maier, J., & Vranic, J. (2021). Personality goes a long way (for some). An experimental investigation into candidate personality traits, voters’ profile, and perceived likeability. Frontiers in Political Science. doi: 10.3389/fpos.2021.636745

Nai, A., & Maier, J. (2020). Teflon Trump? Shifting public perceptions of Donald Trump’s personality traits across four studies over eighteen months. International Journal of Public Opinion Research. doi: 10.1093/ijpor/edaa030


Nai, A., & Maier, J. (2020). Dark necessities? Candidates’ aversive personality traits and negative campaigning in the 2018 American Midterms. Electoral Studies. doi: 10.1016/j.electstud.2020.102233

​Nai, A., & Maier, J. (2020). Is negative campaigning a matter of taste? Political attacks, incivility, and the moderating role of individual differences. American Politics Research. doi: 10.1177/1532673X20965548

Nai, A., & Otto, L. (2020). When they go low, we gloat. How trait and state Schadenfreude moderate the perception and effect of negative political messages. Journal of Media Psychology. doi: 10.1027/1864-1105/a000283

Valli, C., & Nai, A. (2020). Attack politics from Albania to Zimbabwe. A large-scale comparative study on the drivers of negative campaigning. International Political Science Review. doi: 10.1177/0192512120946410

Maier, J., & Nai, A. (2020). Roaring candidates in the spotlight. Campaign negativity, emotions, and media coverage in 107 national elections. The International Journal of Press/Politics. doi: 10.1177/1940161220919093


Seeberg, H. B., & Nai, A. (2020). Undermining a rival party’s issue competence through negative campaigning: Experimental evidence from the USA, Denmark, and Australia. Political Studies. doi: 10.1177/0032321720916162

Nai, A. (2020). The Trump paradox: How cues from a disliked source foster resistance to persuasion. Politics & Governance, 8(1), 122-132.

Nai, A., & Toros, E. (2020). The peculiar personality of strongmen: Big Five and Dark Triad traits of political leaders worldwidePolitical Research Exchange, 2(1): 1-24.


Nai, A. (2019). The electoral success of angels and demons. Big Five, Dark Triad, and Performance at the Ballot Box. Journal of Social and Political Psychology, 7(2), 830–862.


Gerstlé, J., & Nai, A. (2019). Negativity, emotionality and populist rhetoric in election campaigns worldwide, and their effects on media attention and electoral successEuropean Journal of Communication, 34(4) 410–444.


Nai, A., & Maier, J. (2019). Can anyone be objective about Donald Trump? Assessing the personality of political figuresJournal of Elections, Public Opinion & Parties. doi: 10.1080/17457289.2019.1632318


Nai, A., & Martinez i Coma, F. (2019). Losing in the polls, time pressure, and the decision to go negative in referendum campaignsPolitics & Governance, 7(2), 278–296.

Nai, A., & Martinez i Coma, F. (2019). The personality of populists: Provocateurs, charismatic leaders, or drunken dinner guests? West European Politics, 42(7), 1337-1367.

Nai, A., & Sciarini, P. (2018). Why 'going negative'? Strategic and situational determinants of personal attacks in Swiss direct democratic votes. Journal of Political Marketing17(4), 382-417.

Nai, A., Martinez i Coma, F., and Maier, J. (2018). Donald Trump, populism, and the age of extremes: Comparing the personality traits and campaigning style of Trump and other leaders worldwide. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 49(3), 609–643.

    * recipient of the Top Cited Paper Award 2019-2020

    * recipient of the Wiley Top Downloaded Paper Award 2018-2019 

Nai, A. (2018). Disagreeable narcissists, extroverted psychopaths, and elections: A new dataset to measure the personality of candidates worldwide. European Political Science, 18(2), 309–334.

Nai, A. (2018). Going negative, worldwide. Towards a general understanding of determinants and targets of negative campaigning. Government & Opposition. doi: 10.1017/gov.2018.32

Nai, A. (2018). Fear and loathing in populist campaigns? Comparing the communication style of populists and non-populists in elections worldwide. Journal of Political Marketing. doi: 10.1080/15377857.2018.1491439

Karp, J., Nai, A., & Norris, P. (2018). Dial ‘F’ for Fraud: Explaining Citizens Suspicions about Elections. Electoral Studies, DOI: 10.1016/j.electstud.2018.01.010.


Nai, A., & Seeberg, HB. (2018). A series of persuasive events. Sequencing effects of negative and positive messages on party evaluations and perceptions of negativity. Journal of Marketing Communications24(4): 412-432.

Nai, A., & Maier, J. (2018). Perceived personality and campaign style of Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump. Personality and Individual Differences, 121: 80-83.

Martinez i Coma, F., & Nai, A. (2017). Ethnic diversity decreases turnout. Comparative evidence from over 650 elections around the world. Electoral Studies, DOI: 10.1016/j.electstud.2017.07.002.


Nai, A., Schemeil, Y., & Marie, J.-L. (2017). Anxiety, Sophistication, and Resistance to Persuasion: Evidence from a Quasi-experimental Survey on Global Climate Change. Political Psychology, 38(1): 137-156.


Nai, A. (2015). The maze and the mirror: Voting correctly in direct democracy. Social Science Quarterly, 96(2): 465-486.


Sciarini, P., Lanz, S. & Nai, A. (2015). Till immigration do us part? Public opinion and the dilemma between immigration control and bilateral agreements. Swiss Political Science Review, 21(2): 271–286.


Lanz, S. & Nai, A. (2015). Vote as you think: Determinants of consistent decision-making in direct democracy. Swiss Political Science Review, 21(1): 119-139.


Nai, A. (2014). The Cadillac, the mother-in-law, and the ballot: individual and contextual roots of ambivalence in Swiss direct democracy. Electoral Studies, 33: 292-306.


Nai, A. (2013). What really matters is which camp goes dirty. Differential effects of negative campaigning on turnout during Swiss federal ballots. European Journal of Political Research, 52(1): 44-70. 


Giugni, M., & Nai, A. (2013). Paths towards consensus: Explaining decision-making in the Swiss Global Justice Movement. Swiss Political Science Review, 19(1): 26-40.


Cinalli, M., Giugni, M., & Nai, A. (2010). Political participation and protests of migrants: comparing the role of political opportunities across nine cities in Europe. Italian Political Science Review, 3: 397-422.


Nai, A., & Lloren, A. (2009). Intérêt spécifique et comportement politique des citoyennes suisses (1999-2005). Swiss Political Science Review, 15(1): 99-132.

Nai, A., Vermeer, S., Bos, L., & Hameleers, M. (2024). Disenchantment with Political Information: Attitudes, Processes, and Effects. In: Araujo, T., & Neijens, P. (Eds). Communication Research into the Digital Society. University of Amsterdam, pp. 69-86.


Hameleers, M., Gravesteijn, E., Bos, L., & Nai, A. (2024). Communicating Delegitimisation: Political Information and Challenges to Democracy. In: Araujo, T., & Neijens, P. (Eds). Communication Research into the Digital Society. University of Amsterdam, pp. 53-67.


Valli, C., & Nai, A. (2024). Political Communication. In: Grasso, M. & Giugni, M. (Eds). Elgar Encyclopedia of Political Sociology. Edward Elgar Publishing, pp. 371-374.


Nai, A. (2022). Populist Personality and Communication Style. In: Manucci, L. (Ed). The Populism Interviews. A Dialogue with Leading Experts. London: Routledge (forthcoming).


Nai. A. (2022). Bridging Cognitive and Affective Explanations of Political Participation. In: Giugni, M. & Grasso, M. (Eds). The Oxford Handbook of Political Participation. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 668-683.

Nai, A. (2019). Voter Information Processing and Political Decision Making. In: Redlawsk, D. P. (Ed.). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Political Decision Making. New York: Oxford University Press. doi: 10.1093/acrefore/9780190228637.013.912.

Nai, A. (2018). Watchdog Press. In: Vos, T. P. and Hanusch, F. (Eds.). International Encyclopedia of Journalism Studies (forthcoming).

Lanz, S. and Nai, A (2017). How Elections Shape Campaigning Effects in Direct Democracy. In: Qvortrup, M. and Morel, L. (Eds.) The Routledge Handbook to Referendums and Direct Democracy. London: Routledge, pp. 348-368.

Nai, A. (2017). The Fourth Estate. In: Norris, P. and Nai, A. (Eds.) Election Watchdogs: Transparency, Accountability, and Integrity, New York: Oxford University Press.


Nai, A. (2016) 'Introduction: Opinions individuelles et arguments de champagne et démocratie directe suisse, in Nai, A. (Ed.) Le citoyen face à ses opinions: arguments, connaissances et campagnes politiques en Suisse, Zurich: Seismo, pp. 9-28.


Nai, A. (2016) 'La formation de l'opinion entre predispositions et information politique', in Nai, A. (Ed.) Le citoyen face à ses opinions: arguments, connaissances et campagnes politiques en Suisse, Zurich: Seismo, pp. 29-69.


Nai, A. (2016) 'Les citoyens sont-ils trop bêtes pour voter?', in Lloren, A., Tischler, L. et Tavaglione, N. (Dir.) Les étrangers volent-ils notre travail? Et 14 autres questions impertinentes, Genève: Labor et Fides, pp. 61-75.


Nai, A. and Walter, A. S. (2015) 'The War of Words: the Art of Negative Campaigning', in Nai, A. and Walter, A. S. (Eds.) New perspectives on negative campaigning: why attack politics matters, Colchester: ECPR Press, pp. 1-31.


Walter, A. S. and Nai, A. (2015) 'Explaining the Use of Attack Behaviour in the Electoral Battlefield: A Literature Overview', in Nai, A. and Walter, A. S. (Eds.) New perspectives on negative campaigning: why attack politics matters, Colchester: ECPR Press, pp. 97-114.


Nai, A., Holecz, V., Marchesini, M., Petitpas, A. and Sanogo-Willers, B. (2015) 'An OCEAN of Negativity. An Experimental Assessment on Personality Traits and the Chances to 'Go Dirty' in Debates on Political Issues', in Nai, A. and Walter, A. S. (Eds.) New perspectives on negative campaigning: why attack politics matters, Colchester: ECPR Press, pp. 217-232.


Nai, A. and Walter, A. S. (2015) 'How Negative Campaigning Impinges on the Political Game: a Literature Overview', in Nai, A. and Walter, A. S. (Eds.) New perspectives on negative campaigning: why attack politics matters, Colchester: ECPR Press, pp. 235-248.


Walter, A. S. and Nai, A. (2015) 'Where to Go From Here in the Study of Negative Campaigning: The Comparative Challenge Ahead', in Nai, A. and Walter, A. S. (Eds.) New perspectives on negative campaigning: why attack politics matters, Colchester: ECPR Press, pp. 327-333.


Giugni, M. and Nai, A. (2013) 'Quality of Deliberation: A Multilevel Analysis', in Della Porta, D. and Rucht, D. (Eds) Meeting democracy. Power and deliberation in Global Justice Movements, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 152-178.


Lloren, A. et Nai, A. (2010) 'Quand le privé devient public: La formation de l'opinion des suissesses face aux intérêts des femmes (1999-2005)', in Lucas, B. et Ballmer-Cao, T.-H. (Eds.) Les nouvelles frontières du genre. La division public/privé en question, Paris: l'Harmattan, pp. 247-265.


Giugni, M. and Nai, A. (2009) 'Why are social movement organisations deliberative? Structural and cultural determinants of internal decision making in the global justice movement', in Della Porta, D. (Ed) Democracy in Social Movements, Houndmills: Palgrave, pp. 127-149.


Giugni, M., Nai, A. and Reiter, H. (2009) 'Protest and the forum', in Della Porta, D. (Ed) Another Europe. Conceptions and practices of democracy in the European social forums, Oxon: Routledge, pp. 204-224.


Bandler, M. et Nai, A. (2008) 'Entre action et réflexion: Profils militants et formes de l’engagement altermondialiste', in Bandler, M. et Giugni, M. (Eds.) L’Altermondialisme en Suisse, Paris: l’Harmattan, pp. 147-185.


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