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The data                   

The Negative Campaigning Comparative Expert Survey (NEGex) is the first and largest comparative dataset on the use of negative campaigning in elections worldwide based on expert judgments. The dataset contains information about the campaign tone of competing parties and candidates in national elections worldwide. Since 2016, in the aftermath of each national election a sample of domestic and international experts are contacted and asked to rate the content of the campaign, the personality traits of selected candidates, and the media culture and electoral environment. 

*** DOWNLOAD version 2.0 of the NEGex dataset here ***

NEGex 2.0 covers all national elections happened worldwide between June 2016 and March 2020. The data includes information for:

  • 142 national elections (in 105 countries)

  • 457 parties

  • 720 candidates

Map 2.0 full.png

The project is hosted at the Amsterdam School of Communication Research (ASCoR), University of Amsterdam and the pilot phase was financed by a generous research grant from the Swiss National Science Foundation. I am also very grateful for the support provided by the Electoral Integrity Project at the University of Sydney. 

Publications with

the data                           

Nai, A., & Otto, L. (forthcoming 2025). The Psychology of Negative Electoral Campaigns. Perceptions, Evaluations, and Effects. London: Routledge.

Nai, A., & Maier, J. (2024). Dark Politics. The Personality of Politicians and the Future of Democracy. New York: Oxford University Press

Mendoza, P., Nai, A., & Bos, L. (2023). Going negative amidst (better) alternatives: A comparative analysis of the negative campaigning backlash effect. Political Communication (forthcoming).

Medeiros, M., Nai, A., Erman, A, & Young, E. (2022). Personality traits of world leaders and differential policy responses to the COVID-19 pandemic. Social Science & Medicine. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2022.115358

Nai. A. (2021). Populist voters like dark politicians. Personality and Individual Differences. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2021.111412


Petkevic, V., & Nai, A. (2021). Political Attacks in 280 Characters or Less. A New Tool for the Automated Classification of Campaign Negativity on Social Media. American Politics Research. doi: 10.1177/1532673X211055676

Nai, A., & Maier, J. (2021). The Wrath of Candidates. Drivers of Fear and Enthusiasm Appeals in Election Campaigns Across the Globe. Journal of Political Marketing. doi: doi: 10.1080/15377857.2021.1930327


Maier, J., & Nai, A. (2021). When conflict fuels negativity. A large-scale comparative investigation of the contextual drivers of negative campaigning in elections worldwide. The Leadership Quarterly. doi: 10.1016/j.leaqua.2021.101564


Nai, A., Medeiros, M., Maier, M., Maier, J., (2021). Euroscepticism and the use of negative, uncivil and emotional campaigns in the 2019 European Parliament Election: A Winning Combination. European Union Politics. doi: 10.1177/14651165211035675

Nai, A., & Maier, J. (2020). Teflon Trump? Shifting public perceptions of Donald Trump’s personality traits across four studies over eighteen months. International Journal of Public Opinion Research. doi: 10.1093/ijpor/edaa030


Nai, A., & Maier, J. (2020). Dark necessities? Candidates’ aversive personality traits and negative campaigning in the 2018 American Midterms. Electoral Studies. doi: 10.1016/j.electstud.2020.102233

Valli, C., & Nai, A. (2020). Attack politics from Albania to Zimbabwe. A large-scale comparative study on the drivers of negative campaigning. International Political Science Review. doi: 10.1177/0192512120946410


Maier, J., & Nai, A. (2020). Roaring candidates in the spotlight. Campaign negativity, emotions, and media coverage in 107 national elections. The International Journal of Press/Politics. doi: 10.1177/1940161220919093

Nai, A., & Toros, E. (2020). The peculiar personality of strongmen: Big Five and Dark Triad traits of political leaders worldwidePolitical Research Exchange, 2(1): 1-24.

Nai, A. (2019). The electoral success of angels and demons. Big Five, Dark Triad, and Performance at the Ballot Box. Journal of Social and Political Psychology, 7(2), 830–862.


Gerstlé, J., & Nai, A. (2019). Negativity, emotionality and populist rhetoric in election campaigns worldwide, and their effects on media attention and electoral successEuropean Journal of Communication, 34(4) 410–444.


Nai, A., & Maier, J. (2019). Can anyone be objective about Donald Trump? Assessing the personality of political figuresJournal of Elections, Public Opinion & Parties. doi: 10.1080/17457289.2019.1632318

Nai, A., & Martinez i Coma, F. (2019). The personality of populists: Provocateurs, charismatic leaders, or drunken dinner guests? West European Politics, 42(7), 1337-1367.

Nai, A., Martinez i Coma, F., & Maier, J. (2019). Donald Trump, populism, and the age of extremes: Comparing the personality traits and campaigning style of Trump and other leaders worldwide. Presidential Studies Quarterly. doi: 10.1111/psq.12511

Nai, A. (2018). Going negative, worldwide. Towards a general understanding of determinants and targets of negative campaigning. Government & Opposition. doi: 10.1017/gov.2018.32

Nai, A. (2018). Fear and loathing in populist campaigns? Comparing the communication style of populists and non-populists in elections worldwide. Journal of Political Marketing. doi: 10.1080/15377857.2018.1491439

Nai, A. (2018). Disagreeable narcissists, extroverted psychopaths, and elections: A new dataset to measure the personality of candidates worldwide. European Political Science. doi: 10.1057/s41304-018-0187-2


Nai, A., & Maier, J. (2018). Perceived personality and campaign style of Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump. Personality and Individual Differences, 121: 80-83.

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