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Nai. A. (2021). Populist voters like dark politicians. Personality and Individual Differences. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2021.111412

Petkevic, V., & Nai, A. (2021). Political Attacks in 280 Characters or Less. A New Tool for the Automated Classification of Campaign Negativity on Social Media. American Politics Research (forthcoming).

Nai, A., & Maier, J. (2021). The Wrath of Candidates. Drivers of Fear and Enthusiasm Appeals in Election Campaigns Across the Globe. Journal of Political Marketing. doi: doi: 10.1080/15377857.2021.1930327


Maier, J., & Nai, A. (2021). When conflict fuels negativity. A large-scale comparative investigation of the contextual drivers of negative campaigning in elections worldwide. The Leadership Quarterly. doi: 10.1016/j.leaqua.2021.101564


Nai, A., Medeiros, M., Maier, M., Maier, J., (2021). Euroscepticism and the use of negative, uncivil and emotional campaigns in the 2019 European Parliament Election: A Winning Combination. European Union Politics. doi: 10.1177/14651165211035675

Nai, A., & Maier, J. (2020). Teflon Trump? Shifting public perceptions of Donald Trump’s personality traits across four studies over eighteen months. International Journal of Public Opinion Research. doi: 10.1093/ijpor/edaa030


Nai, A., & Maier, J. (2020). Dark necessities? Candidates’ aversive personality traits and negative campaigning in the 2018 American Midterms. Electoral Studies. doi: 10.1016/j.electstud.2020.102233

Valli, C., & Nai, A. (2020). Attack politics from Albania to Zimbabwe. A large-scale comparative study on the drivers of negative campaigning. International Political Science Review. doi: 10.1177/0192512120946410


Maier, J., & Nai, A. (2020). Roaring candidates in the spotlight. Campaign negativity, emotions, and media coverage in 107 national elections. The International Journal of Press/Politics. doi: 10.1177/1940161220919093

Nai, A., & Toros, E. (2020). The peculiar personality of strongmen: Big Five and Dark Triad traits of political leaders worldwidePolitical Research Exchange, 2(1): 1-24.

Nai, A. (2019). The electoral success of angels and demons. Big Five, Dark Triad, and Performance at the Ballot Box. Journal of Social and Political Psychology, 7(2), 830–862.


Gerstlé, J., & Nai, A. (2019). Negativity, emotionality and populist rhetoric in election campaigns worldwide, and their effects on media attention and electoral successEuropean Journal of Communication, 34(4) 410–444.


Nai, A., & Maier, J. (2019). Can anyone be objective about Donald Trump? Assessing the personality of political figuresJournal of Elections, Public Opinion & Parties. doi: 10.1080/17457289.2019.1632318

Nai, A., & Martinez i Coma, F. (2019). The personality of populists: Provocateurs, charismatic leaders, or drunken dinner guests? West European Politics, 42(7), 1337-1367.

Nai, A., Martinez i Coma, F., & Maier, J. (2019). Donald Trump, populism, and the age of extremes: Comparing the personality traits and campaigning style of Trump and other leaders worldwide. Presidential Studies Quarterly. doi: 10.1111/psq.12511

Nai, A. (2018). Going negative, worldwide. Towards a general understanding of determinants and targets of negative campaigning. Government & Opposition. doi: 10.1017/gov.2018.32

Nai, A. (2018). Fear and loathing in populist campaigns? Comparing the communication style of populists and non-populists in elections worldwide. Journal of Political Marketing. doi: 10.1080/15377857.2018.1491439

Nai, A. (2018). Disagreeable narcissists, extroverted psychopaths, and elections: A new dataset to measure the personality of candidates worldwide. European Political Science. doi: 10.1057/s41304-018-0187-2


Nai, A., & Maier, J. (2018). Perceived personality and campaign style of Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump. Personality and Individual Differences, 121: 80-83.

For more information insights into the dynamics of negative campaigning, check out our book:


Nai, A. and Walter, A. S. (Eds.) (2015) New perspectives on negative campaigning: why attack politics matters, Colchester: ECPR Press.

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